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国际课程Alevel/IGCSE经济吴老师

2018-08-15  /  课程体验  /  我要说两句

 

     Introduction to Cambridge International AS and A Level Economics and Techniques in Examinations

  Introduction

  The study of Cambridge International AS and A Level Economics allows learners to explore concepts and theories which can be applied to the way that modern economies work.

  Cambridge learners develop the ability to explain, evaluate and analyse economic issues and arguments. They gain lifelong skills and a solid foundation for further study.

  Key concepts

  At both the AS and A Level the Cambridge syllabus refers to certain key concepts. These are:

  Scarcity and choice: The fundamental problem in economics is that resources are scarce and wants are unlimited, so there is always choice required between competing uses for resources.

  The margin and change: Decision making by individuals, firms and governments is based on choices at the margin; that is, once behaviour has been optimised any change will be detrimental as long as conditions remain the same.

  Equilibrium and efficiency: Prices are set by markets, are always moving in to and out of equilibrium and can be both efficient and inefficient in different ways and over different time periods.

  Regulation and equity: There is a trade-off between, on the one hand, freedom for firms and individuals in unregulated markets and, on the other hand, greater social equality and equity through the government regulation of individuals and markets.

  Progress and development: Economics studies how societies can progress in measurable money terms and develop in a more normative sense.

  Assessment

  For 2016, there are four assessment objectives:

  – AO1 Knowledge and understanding – 30%

  – AO2 Application – 20%

  – AO3 Analysis – 30%

  – AO4 Evaluation – 20%

  For Cambridge International AS and A Level Economics, candidates:

  take Papers 1 and 2 only (for the Cambridge International AS Level qualification)

  or

  follow a staged assessment route by taking Papers 1 and 2 (for the Cambridge International AS Level qualification) in one series, then Papers 3 and 4 (for the Cambridge International A Level qualification) in a later series

  or

  take Papers 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the same examination series, leading to the full Cambridge International A Level.

  All components are externally assessed.

  

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  Techniques for preparing examination papers

  Multiple choice questions (Paper 1 and paper 3)

  A multiple choice question contains a question and four alternative answers. The question is known as the stem, the correct answer is called the key, and the three incorrect answers are referred to as distracters.

  Techniques in handling multiple choice questions

  With some multiple choice questions, it is possible to consider the answer before you look at the four options.

  In other cases, you will have to consider the stem in connection with the options. In such cases, it is useful to consider not only why you think the option you have selected is correct but also why the three options you have rejected are incorrect. Indeed, sometimes a way of arriving at the correct answer is by eliminating the incorrect answers.

  Data-response questions (Paper 2 and paper 4 Section A)

  A data response question is actually a series of connected questions based on real world information.

  The information may be in prose form, a table of figures, a diagram or more commonly a combination of two or three of these.

  There are usually between 4 to 6 questions.

  The first question is often a straightforward one. It may be a definition or one requiring you to draw on the data in a relatively uncomplicated way.

  The last question will ask you to discuss, which may involve examining two sides of an issue and making a judgement.

  The questions in between will draw both your knowledge and understanding of economics and your ability to interpret economic data.

  Techniques in handling data-response questions

  browse through the given content

  (look at the title as it may give some clues about its content, read any table or column headings and see if you know what they mean, see if you can pick out the main patterns in the data using the “eye-ball” technique, pick out any notable features of a chart or diagram see if you can recognize the economic concept or concepts contained in the data)

  read through the questions and underlie the directive and content words

  then examine the given content and data

  then go back to the questions

  it is advisable to answer the questions in order, as there is usually a logical structure to the questions

  (But do remember not to write more than you have to – the marks available should give some indication of how much is required.)

  Essay questions (Paper 2 and paper 4 Section B)

  An essay is an extended piece of writing.

  It enables you to explore a topic in depth and to show the connections between causes, consequences and policies and to apply economic theory to examine current issues.

  Techniques in handling essay questions

  It is important for an essay to have a logical structure with an introduction, main body and a conclusion.

  The introduction should be relatively brief and direct. It is often to define key terms and to provide a brief outline to your answer or an outline of how you are approaching the question.

  The main body of the essay should examine the topic in depth, with each point following on logically from the previous one.

  The conclusion should be a summary of the main points you have made and may involve an overall judgment.

  You should write essays in paragraphs as this will help you to develop a logical structure and enable the different points to stand out.

  The introduction should be written as one paragraph and a paragraph should be devoted to the conclusion (if required).

  Within the main body of the answer, each major point should have a paragraph devoted to it.

  Try to ensure that your writing is legible and also, write your answer in good English with accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation.

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